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Table of Contents
1 Introduction: Human Development and Air Quality
1.1 The Rising Tide of Air Pollution in Developing Countries
1.1.1 Energy use in industrial countries and implications for developing countries
1.1.2 Population growth in developing countries
1.1.3 Economic growth in developing countries
1.1.4 Growth in pollution sources in developing countries
1.2 Air Pollution and Its Association with Economic and Population Growth
1.2.1 The association of environmental damage with growth
1.2.2 The negative consequences on the economy and life style due to air pollution
1.3 Need to Address Air Quality Problems Sooner Rather than Later
1.3.1 Difficulty of correcting air quality problems once they develop
1.3.2 Life-style changes that are hard to reverse
1.3.3 The extra cost of unnecessary incremental steps to reduce air pollution
1.3.4 Making decisions with limited data
1.4 Solving air quality problems and examples of air quality management successes
1.4.1 Solve problems by reducing emissions
1.4.2 Presenting examples of successful problem solving
2 Air Quality and Health and Welfare
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 General issues of health effects (long-term (chronic) versus short-term (acute))
2.1.2 General issues of welfare impacts associated with air pollutants
2.1.3 Cost of air pollution to health and welfare
2.1.4 Discussion of approaches to estimate costs
2.2 Ozone
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 Health Effects from Short-Term Exposures to Ozone
2.2.3 Public Health Concerns from Prolonged and Repeated Exposures to Low Levels of Ozone
2.2.4 WHO Guidelines for Ozone Exposure
2.3 Particulate Matter
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 The Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project
2.3.3 The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS)
2.3.4 Visibility/Regional Haze
2.3.5 WHO Guidelines
2.4 Carbon Monoxide
2.5 Nitrogen Oxides
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Eutrophication and Nitrification
2.5.3 Acid Deposition
2.5.4 WHO Guidelines
2.6 Sulfur Oxides
2.6.1 WHO Guidelines
2.6.2 New WHO Air Quality Guidelines Issued
2.7 Toxic Materials
2.7.1 Introduction
2.7.2 Diesel Health Assessment
2.7.3 Diesel Exhaust or Diesel Particulate Matter
2.7.4 The MATES Study
2.7.5 Gaseous Air Toxics
2.8 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
2.8.1 The Health and Welfare Risks of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
2.8.2 The Causes of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Carrying Capacity of Stratospheric Ozone Depleters
2.8.3 Sources of Further Reading
2.9 Global Warming
2.9.1 The Concept of Global Warming and Related Health and Welfare Risks
2.9.2 Key Components of Global Warming
2.9.3 Estimated Global Emission Rates and Global Carrying Capacity
2.9.4 Emission Rates Needed to Mitigate Global Warming in Light of World Population and Economic Increases
2.9.5 Sources of Further Reading
2.10 Methodologies and State of the Art for Quantifying the Health Impacts of Air Pollution
2.10.1 Introduction
2.10.2 Key Approaches to Estimating the Health Benefits of Controlling Air Pollution
2.10.3 Approximating the Health Benefits of a Control Policy with Limited Information
2.10.4 Improving the Analysis
2.10.5 Case Study of Estimating Health Impacts from Retrofitting Diesel Trucks in Beijing, China Using a Simple Analysis Approach
2.11 References
3 Developing a Framework for Effective Air Quality Management
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Key Components of Air Quality Management
3.3 Setting Air Quality Goals for a Region
3.3.1 The Need for Air Quality Goals
3.3.2 The Process for Setting Air Quality Standards
3.3.3 Defining the Format of Air Quality Standards
3.3.4 A Time Line for Meeting Air Quality Standards
3.3.5 Consequences of Not Meeting Air Quality Standards
3.4 Understanding Air Quality Levels in a Region
3.4.1 An Overview
3.4.2 Location Considerations
3.5 Understanding the Sources of Air Quality Problems
3.5.1 Overview
3.5.2 Source Categories
3.5.3 Determining Emission Rates
3.5.4 Emission Inventory Changes Over Time
3.5.5 Quality Assurance
3.6 Developing an Air Quality Management Plan
3.6.1 Overview of the Air Quality Planning Process
3.6.2 The Air Quality Management Planning Process
3.7 Implementation of Air Quality Plans
3.7.1 Organization and Approach of an Implementation Program
3.7.2 Rule Development Programs
3.7.3 Market Based Air Quality Management Programs
3.7.4 Rule Enforcement Programs
3.7.5 Use of Permits to Support Compliance
3.7.6 Funding Air Quality Management Programs
3.7.7 Programs to Determine Compliance
3.7.8 Programs for Handling Violations of Regulations
3.7.9 Special Enforcement Issues
3.7.10 United States Air Quality Management Program
3.7.11 United Kingdom Air Quality Management Program
3.7.12 Chile Air Quality Management Program
3.7.13 Mexico Air Quality Management Program
4 Identifying Air Quality Problems
4.1 Air Quality Monitoring
4.1.1 Simple techniques for estimating air pollution levels of some pollutants
4.1.2 Sophisticated air quality monitoring techniques
4.1.3 Humans as monitors (carboxyhemoglobin measurement, lead measurment)
4.1.4 Personal exposure monitoring
4.1.5 Plants and Lichens as air monitors
4.1.6 Design of an air quality monitoring network
4.2 Toxics Monitoring
4.2.1 Simple techniques for estimating air toxic levels
4.2.2 Sophisticated air toxic monitoring
4.2.3 Design of an air toxics monitoring network
4.3 Epidemiological Studies
4.3.1 The epidemiological methodology
4.3.2 Locating information for epidemiological studies
4.3.3 Properly interpreting epidemiological data
4.4 Quality Assurance in Air Quality Monitoring
4.4.1 Need to assure data quality
4.4.2 Development of a quality assurance plan
5 Identifying Sources of Air Quality Problems
5.1 Source Apportionment Monitoring
5.1.1 Use of relative proportions of air pollutants to predict sources
5.1.2 Analysis of particulate data to predict sources
5.2 Looking for Pollution Fingerprints
5.2.1 Air pollution proportions to expect from different sources
5.3 Tracer Studies
5.3.1 Concept of tracer studies
5.3.2 Use of sulfur hexafluoride for tracer studies
6 Estimating Emissions from Sources of Air Pollution
6.1 Development of an Emissions Inventory
6.1.1 Overview
6.1.2 Approaches to Inventory Development
6.1.3 Compounds to Consider for an Emissions Inventory
6.1.4 Emission Source Categories
6.1.5 Emission Inventory Format
6.1.6 Emission Inventory Database Systems
6.1.7 Inventory Accuracy (Quality Assurance)
6.1.8 Compiling an Emissions Inventory
6.1.9 The International Environmental Database System
6.2 Estimating Emissions from On-Road Mobile Sources
6.2.1 Fundamentals of Emission Generation in Vehicles
6.2.2 Key Emission Related Parameters and the Use of Emission Factors
6.2.3 Simplified Application of Emission Factors
6.2.4 Widely Used Vehicle Emission Models
6.2.5 The International Vehicle Emissions Model
6.2.6 Determination of the Distribution of Vehicle Technologies in a Fleet
6.2.7 Determination of Driving Patterns of On-Road Vehicles
6.2.8 Determination of Start-Up Patterns of On-Road Vehicles
6.2.9 Measurement of Vehicle Emissions
6.2.10 Determination of Total Driving in a Region
6.3 Estimating Emissions from Off-Road Mobile Sources
6.3.1 Classification
6.3.2 A Simple Approach for Estimating Emissions
6.3.3 An Enhanced Emissions Inventory Approach
6.3.4 Determining Tailpipe Emission Rates
6.3.5 Determining Non-Tailpipe Emission Rates
6.3.6 Determining Activity: Population and Use of Different Sources
6.3.7 Determining Activity: Duty Cycles or Load Factors of Different Sources
6.3.8 Forecasting Future Activity and Emissions
6.3.9 Existing Models for Off-Road Mobile Source Emissions
6.3.10 General Considerations
7 Air Quality Modeling
7.1 Overview of Air Quality Modeling
7.1.1 Introduction
7.1.2 Proportional Modeling
7.1.3 Components of Air Quality Modeling
7.1.4 The Classification of Air Quality Models
7.1.5 The Development of Air Quality Models
7.2 Dispersion Modeling
7.2.1 Gaussian Dispersion
7.2.2 Box Models
7.3 Atmospheric Reaction Modeling
7.3.1 Formation of Pollutants
7.3.2 Three Dimensional Eulerian Grid Models
7.3.3 Meteorology for Modeling
7.4 Third Generation Modeling
7.4.1 Formation of Particulate Matter and Ozone
7.4.2 Interactions Among the Atmospheric Processes
7.4.3 Models-3/CMAQ Model
7.5 Air Quality Model Design and Simulation
7.5.1 Overview
7.5.2 Prepare for Modeling
7.5.3 Modeling Verification
7.6 Relevant Applications
7.6.1 Air Quality Prediction Ozone in London
7.6.2 Sensitivity of Particulate Matter Concentration in Ontario to Emissions
7.6.3 Impacts of Global Climate Change and Emissions on Regional Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations over the United States
7.6.4 Health Benefit and Evaluation Analysis based on the Scenario Method in China
7.6.5 Assessment of Ozone Abatement Strategies for the Green Olympic
7.6.6 Conclusion
8 Developing Emission Reduction Strategies
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Approach (reducing emissions is what produces cleaner air)
8.1.2 Levels of control (best available control technology, reasonably available control technology, etc.)
8.1.3 Control technology improvement drivers (technology forcing)
8.1.4 Assessing the costs of emission reduction strategies
8.2 On-Road Mobile Sources
8.2.1 Introduction
8.2.2 Vehicle Emission Standards
8.2.3 Emissions Control Technology for Diesel Vehicles
8.2.4 Engine Technology and Emission Control Technologies for 4-Wheeled Gasoline Vehicles
8.2.5 Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles
8.2.6 Compliance Program
8.2.7 Transportation management and rapid transit systems
8.2.8 State of technology for reducing emissions from on-road vehicles
8.2.9 The importance of fuel quality in supporting technology advancement
8.2.10 Clean fuels to replace gasoline and diesel fuel
8.2.11 Inspection and Maintenance programs to reduce vehicle pollution
8.3 Off-Road Mobile Sources
8.3.1 Airplanes and ground support
8.3.2 Trains and train yards
8.3.3 Shipping ports and ships operating near shore
8.3.4 Agricultural and Construction equipment
8.3.5 Portable electrical generators
8.4 Stationary Sources
8.4.1 Definition of a stationary source
8.4.2 Cement Manufacture
8.4.3 Electricity generation
8.4.4 Refineries
8.4.5 ETC.
8.4.6 ETC.
8.4.7 ETC.
8.5 Area Sources
8.5.1 Definition of an area source
8.5.2 Architectural surface coating
8.5.3 Consumer products
8.5.4 Cooking
8.5.5 Heating
8.5.6 Service stations
8.6 Market Based Strategies
8.6.1 Pros and cons of market based strategies
8.6.2 Cap and Trade emission reduction system
8.6.3 Regulatory based trading system
8.6.4 Use of taxes and fees to reduce emissions
8.7 Cost Benefit Analysis
9 Implementation of Air Quality Management Programs
9.1 Adoption of Control Measures
9.1.1 The general regulatory process
9.1.2 Concerns of regulated parties (addressing and overcoming)
9.1.3 Involving the public in the regulatory process
9.2 Commitment to Control
9.2.1 The importance of regulatory inevitability
9.2.2 Achieving successful emission reductions
9.3 Enforcement of Control Measures
9.3.1 Stationary source inspections and stack testing
9.3.2 On-Road mobile source manufacturer testing and in-use field testing
9.3.3 Area source inspections and manufacturer testing
9.4 Cross-Border Air Quality Problems
9.4.1 Developing an information transfer process
9.4.2 Routine meetings among control official
10 Fuels and Energy
10.1 Conventional Fuels (Group 1)
10.1.1 Diesel Vehicles and Fuels
10.1.2 Gasoline Vehicles and Fuels
10.1.3 Fuel Quality Monitoring
10.1.4 Concluding Remarks on Vehicles and Fuels
10.2 Alternative Fuels (Group 2)
11 Life-Cycle Analysis and Its Application to Air Quality Improvement
11.1 The purpose and form of life-cycle analysis and industrial ecology
11.1.1 The general approach to life-cycle analysis
11.1.2 Key issues to consider in life-cycle analysis
11.2 Examples of life-cycle analysis
11.2.1 The global warming impact of ethanol fuels
11.2.2 The energy cost of computer production and use
12 Building Capacity, Involving Stakeholders, and Reaching the Public
12.1 Building capacity to support air quality improvement programs
12.2 The importance of stakeholder and public Involvement
12.3 The Internet
12.3.1 Getting ideas out
12.3.2 Public feedback
12.4 Labeling
12.4.1 Consumer product labeling
12.4.2 Signs and announcements posted at retail outlets
12.5 Advertisements
12.5.1 Newspaper, radio, and television advertisements
12.6 Movie Trailers
12.6.1 Use of ads in movie theaters
12.7 Public Events
12.7.1 Establishment of public events to raise awareness
12.7.2 Use of existing public events to raise awareness
12.7.3 Examples of successful public events (Earthday)
12.8 Voluntary Programs
12.8.1 Use of volunteers in supporting air quality improvement efforts
12.8.2 Interactions with NGO interested in air pollution
12.8.3 Examples of international NGOs that could be valuable contacts
13 Policy Development and Organization
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Capacity Building
13.3 Broad Stakeholder Involvement (including NGOs)
13.4 Having a long term vision
13.5 Seeing the big picture
14 Temporary Chapter
15 We are Adding a Chapter