Developing Emission Reduction Strategies

8.2 On-Road Mobile Sources

8.2.5 Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles
Many countries and cities throughout Asia have much higher proportions of two and three wheeled vehicles than anywhere else in the world. This vehicle segment is also growing rapidly in cities such as Sao Paulo in Brazil. Most two and three wheeled vehicles currently used are not equipped with catalytic converters to control emissions. Therefore it would seem that the impact of the various fuels parameters will be similar to those from pre Euro 1 cars. Some catalysts are starting to enter the fleet as emissions standards are being tightened, especially in India, Taipei,China and Europe. These vehicles are anticipated to be impacted by sulfur and lead in a manner similar to Euro 1 and 2 gasoline fueled cars. For two and three wheeled vehicles equipped with 2-stroke engines, the amount and quality of the lubricating oil is probably more important for emissions than fuel quality.